I have also experienced the same problem when adding the Local Transport. I got a message saying that the transport has been successfully added, but the name doesn't show up in the list of available transports.
Our ArcGIS for Server is 10.4.1, so I assume that the problem is a versions' issue.
I have managed to make it work for a while, repeating the adding transport some times and configuring manually the connector and input service (instead of using the config file available, which didn't work), eventually it worked, the transport was on the list for a while and consequently the connector worked as well, but after less than an hour, it disappeared from the list again and I haven't been able to add it again ever since. Even delinting the physical .jar file and adding it back again through the geoEvent manager, it never showed up in the list again.
Are you plan to provide a transport compatible with 10.4.1 at some point ?